Thursday, March 9, 2017

Policing in America: Understanding Public Attitudes Toward the Police. Results from a National Survey
"While 68% of white Americans have a favorable view of the police, only 40% of African Americans and 59% of Hispanics have a favorable view. Attitudes have changed little since the 1970s when 67% of whites and 43% of blacks reported favorable views of the police. Racial minorities do not have monolithic attitudes toward the police. This report finds that Hispanics’ perceptions of police occupy a “middle ground” between black and white Americans’ views...."

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Adult Prison Sentences Make No Sense For Children
"Over the past ten years, half of the states that had previously excluded all 16- and/or 17-year-olds from juvenile court based solely on their age have changed their laws so that most youth under age 18 who touch the justice system will fall under the jurisdiction of the juvenile justice system. These policy changes are part of a shift to "raise the age"--reforms focused on moving out of the adult criminal justice system the tens of thousands of youth under 18 who are automatically treated as adults because of age of jurisdiction laws. States have raised the age for many reasons, one of which is research showing that justice-involved teenagers are more likely to move past delinquency and successfully transition to adulthood if they are served by a juvenile justice system, not an adult criminal justice system."

View the Report: Raising the Age: Shifting to a Safer and More Effective Juvenile Justice System
 
Professor Audrey Macklin on Metro Morning: Should Canada Suspend the Safe Third Country Agreement?
Securing Canada's Cyberspace
"While Canadians have openly embraced a new era of digital and technological innovation, the advent of the Internet has ushered in threats formerly unimaginable. What is cybercrime, and how is it perpetrated? More importantly, why — despite greater awareness of cybercrime and the components of an effective cybersecurity strategy — are businesses, governments and individuals still not adequately protecting themselves from online attacks?

In 2016, the Public Policy Forum convened cyber-security experts from government, business and academia to explore these types of complex questions. Over a series of discussions, participants identified legal, philosophical, cultural, resource and education obstacles that deter Canadians from understanding cyber threats and implementing effective solutions."

View the Report
 
Report: Fentanyl's Increasing Flows Fuel Steep Rise in Overdose Deaths
"UNODC launched today [Mar. 6, 2017] a report which sheds light on the rapidly unfolding public health threat posed by extremely potent synthetic opioids, such as fentanyl and its analogues. Information in the report suggests that it is twice as likely to overdose with fentanyl than with heroin. The study is part of the Global Synthetics Monitoring: Analyses, Reporting and Trends (SMART) Programme, designed to provide regular brief reports on emerging patterns and trends of the global synthetic drug situation."

View the Report
 

Friday, February 24, 2017

How do People in High-Crime, Low-Income Communities View the Police?
"This brief represents the experiences, views, and attitudes of community members who are often underrepresented in research on perceptions of law enforcement – people living in high-crime neighborhoods with concentrated disadvantage. The survey found that while residents of these neighborhoods are distrustful of police, they nevertheless want to cooperate and partner with police to make their communities safer. A door-to-door survey in high-crime neighborhoods of six cities found that less than a third of residents believe police respect people’s rights, but the vast majority believe laws should be strictly followed and many would volunteer their time to help police solve crimes, find suspects, and discuss crime in their neighborhood."

View the Report
 
The FBI is Building a National Watchlist that Gives Companies Real-Time Updates on Employees
"The FBI's Rap Back program is quietly transforming the way employers conduct background checks. While routine background checks provide employers with a one-time “snapshot” of their employee’s past criminal history, employers enrolled in federal and state Rap Back programs receive ongoing, real-time notifications and updates about their employees’ run-ins with law enforcement, including arrests at protests and charges that do not end up in convictions. ('Rap' is an acronym for Record of Arrest and Prosecution; 'Back” is short for background.)'

Rap Back has been advertised by the FBI as an effort to target individuals in 'positions of trust,' such as those who work with children, the elderly, and the disabled. According to a Rap Back spokesperson, however, there are no formal limits as to 'which populations of individuals can be enrolled in the Rap Back Service.' Civil liberties advocates fear that under Trump’s administration the program will grow with serious consequences for employee privacy, accuracy of records, and fair employment practices."

How to Uproot a "Tree of Death"
"Predictive tools can now track how a single shooting incident triggers a lethal cascade of gunshot violence—and predict who will be targeted next....

...Researchers Ben Green and Thibaut Horel at Harvard and Andrew Papachristos at Yale used a social contagion model and tried to predict gunshot victimization in Chicago between 2006 and 2014.

Using police records of people arrested together for the same offense, they mapped a network of 138,163 subjects and looked at the spread of violence within it. Their model, based on the ones epidemiologists use to understand contagion, assumed that shootings were likely to spread between co-arrestees, who would have close social ties and engage in risky behavior together. When they ran probabilities on people linked to a shooting victim, what they found was staggering: 63 percent of the 11,123 total shootings in the network were part of a longer chain of gunshot victimization. The closer someone was to a victim, the greater the risk of being shot."

View the Study

Accounting for Violence: How to Increase Safety and Break Our Failed Reliance on Mass Incarceration
"In the United States, violence and mass incarceration are deeply entwined, though evidence shows that both can decrease at the same time. A new vision is needed to meaningfully address violence and reduce the use of incarceration—and to promote healing among crime survivors and improve public safety. This report describes four principles to guide policies and practices that aim to reduce violence: They should be survivor-centered, based on accountability, safety-driven, and racially equitable."

View the Report 
 
Study Stresses Dangers of Charging Youth as Adults
"Until November of last year, California prosecutors could bypass the juvenile justice system, charging minors in adult courts without any input from a judge. 'Prosecutorial direct filing' is no longer legal after the passage of Prop 57 last November, and now a report from advocacy organization Human Impact Partners, published earlier this month, has made a case for why California should go further–and eliminate the practice of charging youth as adults entirely."

View the Report
 
Following the Money of Mass Incarceration
"The cost of imprisonment — including who benefits and who pays — is a major part of the national discussion around criminal justice policy. But prisons and jails are just one piece of the criminal justice system and the amount of media and policy attention that the various players get is not necessarily proportional to their influence.

In this first-of-its-kind report, we find that the system of mass incarceration costs the government and families of justice-involved people at least $182 billion every year."

Perspectives on the Trump Executive Order on Immigration
"Moderator R. Nicholas Burns was joined by panelists David French, Juliette Kayyem, Gil Kerlikowske, and Moshik Temkin to discuss the ramifications of President Trump’s executive order on immigration. The panelists discussed a wide range of issues relating to border security, constitutional law, and refugee and anti-terrorism efforts under the Trump administration. The panelists also discussed the future of immigration law under the new administration, focusing on the new slate of advisors and cabinet members in the White House and how immigration and refugee law will change moving forward."