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Showing posts from September, 2010

What the #!%*?: Prostitution Prohibitions

The federal government announced on Wednesday it will appeal an Ontario judge’s ruling striking down three key sections of the country’s prostitution laws. National Post reporter Shannon Kari explains what Ontario Superior Court Justice Susan Himel actually decided in her 131-page ruling, and the immediate impact of her decision:What happens next?
Justice Minister Rob Nicholson, who described prostitution as “a problem that harms individuals and communities,” told the House of Commons on Wednesday the government will ask the Ontario Superior Court to suspend its ruling while the case winds its way through the system, a process that could take years. Judge Himel had invited the federal government to appear again before her in the next month to make the case for a further stay. Professor Kent Roach, a constitutional law expert at the University of Toronto law school, said he expects the federal government to instead go straight to the Ontario Court of Appeal and ask for a s…

Ottawa appeals prostitution ruling

The federal and Ontario governments say they will appeal a controversial court judgment that struck down Canada's prostitution laws.

Justice Minister Rob Nicholson told the House of Commons on Wednesday that prostitution “harms individuals and communities.”“That is why I am pleased to indicate to the House that the government will appeal and will seek a stay of that decision.”Ontario Attorney-General Chris Bentley quickly followed suit, saying the province will join in the appeal to the province's top court.Mr. Bentley said the laws “protect people from being lured or coerced into prostitution, they protect people from being under domination of those who would prey, and they protect communities from the adverse effects of prostitution-related activities.”Read on...

Police, communities struggle to grasp prostitution ruling

Kirk MakinThe ruling also left police confused and neighbourhoods fortifying to fend off a possible deluge of sex-trade workers. When the dust settles around the prostitution decision, experts predict that municipalities across the country will pass bylaws and licensing systems based on their own local community standards and political realities. “We could end up with a bizarre patchwork of regulation across the country,” said Simon Fraser University criminology professor John Lowman. “Nor, is there any guarantee that municipalities are going to do any better at this than the feds. It depends upon the attitude they take to a highly divisive issue in Canadian society.”
Read on...

National Post editorial board: Finally, some sanity in our prostitution laws

The Ontario Superior Court struck a blow for sane legislation on Tuesday when it struck down laws against communicating for the purposes of prostitution, living off its avails and running a “common bawdy house” — i.e., a brothel. Like it or not, the exchange of money for sexual services between consenting adults is legal in Canada. And as a general rule, if we lack the constitutional power or the intestinal fortitude to outlaw something, we should resolve to live with the consequences and not resort to erecting artificial, counterintuitive laws designed to prevent legal behaviour.Prostitution is not a trade any parents would choose for their children. No matter where or how it’s carried out, it’s unlikely to be particularly safe or salubrious. “Any time you are alone with a john, it is dangerous,” the Crown argued in the case decided on Tuesday. “There is no safe haven when you are involved in prostitution. There is overwhelming evidence that johns can become…

Prostitution laws struck down

Terri-Jean Bedford, seen here at a news conference on Sept. 28, 2010, challenged Canada's prostituion laws under the Charter of Rights and Freedoms.A Toronto judge has struck down Canada’s prostitution laws, saying provisions meant to protect women and residential neighbourhoods are endangering sex workers’ lives.If Justice Susan Himel’s decision stands, prostitutes will be able to communicate freely with customers on the street, conduct business in their homes or brothels and hire bodyguards and accountants without exposing them to the risk of criminal sanctions.The Superior Court judge suspended her ruling from taking effect for 30 days to give the government time to consider how to address potential consequences, including the emergence of unlicensed brothels.Read on...

The Bawdy Politic

A Toronto judge has struck down Canada’s prostitution laws, effectively decriminalizing activities associated with the world’s oldest trade.

“These laws, individually and together, force prostitutes to choose between their liberty interest and their right to security of the person as protected under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms,” Justice Susan Himel of Ontario’s Superior Court of Justice said in Tuesday’s landmark decision.

The long-awaited judgment had been on reserve for nearly a year.

The decision is effective immediately.

Read on...

MPs need to tackle the prostitution issue

An Ontario judge had no business striking down three major anti-prostitution laws in the Criminal Code on Tuesday. “There has been a long-standing debate in this country and elsewhere about the subject of prostitution,” writes Madam Justice Susan Himel of the Ontario Superior Court, but it is, apparently, over. Who is she to weigh all the potential harms at stake and decide matters, on either side? Who says she can do a better job than Parliament?

Canada should be prepared to liberalize its laws on prostitution, and to take into account the safety of the women (and some men) involved. But that is a job for elected legislators, not a judge.

Read on...

This is a Globe and Mail editorial. Tom

Judge decriminalizes prostitution in Ontario, but Ottawa mulls appeal

A Superior Court justice gutted the federal prostitution law in Ontario on Tuesday, allowing sex-trade workers to solicit customers openly and paving the way for judges in other provinces to follow suit.

Justice Susan Himel struck down all three Criminal Code provisions that had been challenged – communicating for the purposes of prostitution, pimping and operating a common bawdy house. The decision will take effect in 30 days unless Crown lawyers return with arguments that are strong enough to persuade her to grant a further delay, Judge Himel said. Her landmark ruling drew immediate fire in Ottawa, which has little time to regroup and battle the judgment. A domino effect of judicial decisions could quickly topple prostitution laws across Canada, as happened several years ago with prohibitions against gay marriage.
Read on...

The Centre of Criminology - Canadiana Bldg Renovations

We'll be adding a series of pictures of the 2007 renovation of the Canadiana Building to create the present Centre of Criminology. Feel free to make comments on any of the pictures. If you already belong to Facebook the pictures are here:

If you don't belong to Facebook it is simple to join at

The first 25 pictures are now up as well as some videos from Youtube.

This is taken from the future library, looking out to the main foyer.

Tom and Andrea

Now vacant: A confirmation crisis in our courts

By Eric H. Holder Jr. Tuesday, September 28, 2010 More than a year ago, President Obama nominated Jane Stranch, a respected Nashville labor lawyer, to a seat on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 6th Circuit. That vacancy had been declared a "judicial emergency" because the Sixth Circuit does not have enough judges to promptly or effectively handle the court's caseload, leading to serious delays in the administration of justice to people in Tennessee and other parts of the 6th Circuit. Yet despite the fact that Judge Stranch enjoyed the support of both of her Republican home-state senators and bipartisan support in the Senate Judiciary Committee, she was forced to wait almost 300 days for an up-or-down vote by the full Senate. When she finally received that vote earlier this month, she was confirmed overwhelmingly. Unfortunately, her story is all too typical. Nominee after nominee has languished in the Senate for many months, only to be confirmed by wide bip…

How to Spot a Terrorist

By JOHN FARMER Jr.A YOUNG man walks into a Home Depot and buys a large quantity of acetone. Later, a young man walks into a beauty supply store and buys hydrogen peroxide. Still later, a young man is observed parked outside a nondescript federal building in a rented van, taking photographs.

No crime has been committed. But should any of these activities (acetone and hydrogen peroxide can be components for explosives) be reported to and evaluated by law enforcement officials? If they are reported, the government may infringe on privacy and civil liberties. If they are not, we might not know until it’s too late whether it was the same young man in each instance. We might miss the next Timothy McVeigh. This dilemma was at the heart of hearings before the Senate Homeland Security Committee last week, in which several federal officials warned that “homegrown terrorists” represent the nation’s greatest emerging threat. According to the F.B.I. director, Robert Mueller, Al Qaed…

White House Wants to Wiretap Internet Communications

The Obama administration is drawing up legislation to make it easier for US intelligence services to eavesdrop on the Internet, including email exchanges and social networks.

The Obama administration is drawing up legislation to make it easier for US intelligence services to eavesdrop on the Internet, including email exchanges and social networks, The New York Times said Monday.The White House intends to submit a bill before Congress next year that would require all online services that enable communications to be technically capable of complying with a wiretap order, including being able to intercept and unscramble encrypted messages, the Times reported.The services would include encrypted email transmitters like BlackBerry, social networking websites like Facebook and peer-to-peer messaging software like Skype.Read on...I'm seriously thinking of ditching my Obama t-shirts, as the Obama/Bush administration continues its war on civil liberties. Tom

Bug spray, portable potties drove up summit costs

OTTAWA—Mosquito traps, mass casualty kits, glow sticks and a futuristic new weapon meant to stop speeding boats dead in the water were among the purchases on Ottawa’s $1-billion tab for hosting the G8 and G20 summits.New documents provide fresh details on how the government rang up such a big bill and also give a hint of the security gear police relied on to protect the world leaders.As presidents and prime ministers met inside Muskoka’s Deerhurst Resort, it appears that police patrolling a nearby lake had a secret weapon to stop anyone who attempted to breach the property by boat.Ottawa paid $43,179 for a “running gear entanglement system,” branded by one British newspaper as a “James Bond Harpoon.” A special gun fires a line of high-tensile rope into the path of an oncoming boat. The rope snags the boat’s propeller and stalls the engine.Read on...What a boondoggle. Tom

Watchdog Faults FBI for 'Factually Weak' Basis for Investigating Activists

A new report finds that activists--including a Quaker peace activist and a Catholic religious community--were placed on terrorism watchlists by the FBI.

The FBI in recent years opened investigations into some U.S. activists with little basis, unjustifiably extended the duration of the probes, improperly retained information about activist groups in its files, and classified its investigations of “nonviolent civil disobedience” as investigations into “acts of terrorism,” according to a report released today(PDF) by the Justice Department’s Inspector General.

The FBI in recent years opened investigations into some U.S. activists with little basis, unjustifiably extended the duration of the probes, improperly retained information about activist groups in its files, and classified its investigations of “nonviolent civil disobedience” as investigations into “acts of terrorism,” according to a report released today(PDF) by the Justice Department’s Inspector General.


Controversial UIC professor denied emeritus status

Son of Robert Kennedy speaks out against Ayers
William Ayers

n a very unusual move, University of Illinois trustees Thursday denied giving emeritus status to controversial retired professor William Ayers.

The vote, at a U. of I. board meeting in Urbana, was unanimous and came after a passionate speech by board chair Christopher Kennedy, who invoked the 1968 assassination of his father, Sen. Robert F. Kennedy, in saying that he was voting his conscience.

The other trustees, without comment, also voted against the appointment.

Read on...

This seems petty. Tom

Teresa Lewis, Mentally Disabled Woman, Executed In Virginia Amid Outcry

Teresa Lewis


JARRATT, Va. — The first woman executed in the United States in five years was put to death in Virginia on Thursday for arranging the killings of her husband and a stepson over a $250,000 insurance payment.Teresa Lewis, 41, died by injection at 9:13 p.m. Thursday, authorities said. She became the first woman executed in Virginia in nearly a century. Supporters and relatives of the victims watched her execution at Greensville Correctional Center in Jarratt.Read on...

Prisons given funding, but no clear plan

Correctional Investigator of Canada and Federal Ombudsman for Prisons, Howard Sapers, holds a news conference to release their final assessment of the Correctional Service of Canada's response to deaths in custody at the National Press Theatre in Ottawa on Sept. 8, 2010.Diana ZlomislicStaff Reporter

The federal government poured $50 million into Canada’s prison system to deal with mentally ill offenders without a comprehensive plan to make sure it was properly spent, a watchdog report has found.“Significant funds were advanced to the Correctional Service of Canada on the basis of much less detailed planning and reporting accountability than that generally demanded of the public,” according to the report by the Office of the Correctional Investigator of Canada.The result: a hodgepodge of poorly planned and unfinished programs scattered over a prison system strained by a growing number of inmates with mental disorders. “We know that there’s a growing demand for mental hea…

Is infanticide a legitimate defence?

Tracey TylerLegal Affairs Reporter

Their numbers are few and their tragic stories vary, but women who deliberately kill their newborn children have long had something in common. The possibility of being treated more leniently than other killers.

But that could change with an important case starting Thursday in Toronto that could restrict the use of an infanticide provision in the Criminal Code. A lawyer for the province’s attorney general will ask the Ontario Court of Appeal to rule that a mother who intentionally kills her child while mentally disturbed or suffering postpartum depression can’t defend herself by arguing the crime was infanticide, punishable by up to five years in prison.Read on...

Probe of 'secret' G20 law should be public: critics

Robert Benzie and Rob FergusonQueen's Park Bureau

An independent review of the “secret law” police used to detain hundreds of people during last summer's G20 summit is no substitute for a public inquiry, critics charge.While Nathalie Des Rosiers, general counsel for the Canadian Civil Liberties Association, welcomed the province's appointment of former Ontario chief justice Roy McMurtry to probe the controversial 1939 Public Works Protection Act, she said “it does not change the need for a public inquiry.”“We will continue to push the federal government for a full public inquiry,” Des Rosiers said in an interview from Ottawa Wednesday.“They threw the party, they should pay for the broken glasses,” she said, urging Queen's Park to “exert some pressure on the federal government to stop this wall of silence” about the security at the June 26-27 summit of world leaders.Read on...

Scapegoating Immigrants: Arizona's Real Crisis is Rooted in State Residents' Soaring Drug Abuse

A Public Policy Study from the Centre on Juvenile and Criminal Justice

by Mike Males and Daniel Macallair

From 1990 to 2010, Arizona gained more than 1.3
million new Hispanic residents, approximately 1
million of whom located in the Phoenix metropolitan
area.1 With 2 million legal and an estimated 300,000
undocumented Hispanic residents in the state today,
approximately 31 percent of Arizona’s population and
perhaps as much as 35 percent of the population
within its borders is of Hispanic origin.2

This report examines crime and drug abuse trends in
Arizona over the last two decades of massive legal
and nonlegal Hispanic in-migration. Arizona’s recent
anti-immigrant law3 is based on the theory that crime
rates, especially related to drug distribution, and other
social ills are driven by increases in legal and
nonlegal immigration (see sidebar). Arizona’s
governor even stated that, “the majority of the illegal
trespassers that are coming into the state of Arizona
are under the direction and control of org…

Supreme Court Rejects Stay in Teresa Lewis Execution

By Jeralyn, Section Death Penalty

On Thursday, Teresa Lewis will be the first woman to be executed in Virginia since 1912. (Background here:) Teresa Lewis didn't pull the trigger. She confessed, pleaded guilty and cooperated with authorities. She has an IQ of 70, right on the border of mental retardation. She has no prior criminal record, and no prior history of violence. The triggermen in the murder got life without parole.Read on...

Traveling the Globe With Probationer Paris Hilton

By Jeralyn, Section Crime in the News

Do celebrities get harsher treatment than others? With respect to Paris Hilton and Lindsay Lohan, it seems that way to me.

The ink wasn't even dry on Paris Hilton's plea and sentencing documents when she flew from Las Vegas to Tokyo for legitimate and lucrative business reasons. Yet she was denied entry into Japan and told to wait at an airport hotel. She's now been asked to wait another day, while Japanese officials make up their mind whether to allow her entry. The two reasons I've seen given: They don't allow people on probation or people with drug offenses to visit Japan.

Fine, but other than the news media, how would Japan have known? It's quite unlikely the State Department notified Japan or even put an electronic note in her passport file. I doubt her plea and sentence were even entered in NCIC or criminal law enforcement databases by the time she reached Japan, and even with our government's obsession with sharing …

Alcohol Lobby Now Openly Spending Against CA's Legal Pot Initiative in Alliance with Police Industrial Complex

Big Alcohol's decision to squash marijuana law reform to protect its bottom line is simply politics as usual.

It is said that politics makes strange bedfellows, but there are arguably few stranger than the emerging alliance between two of California's most powerful political players: the police-industrial complex and Big Alcohol. Campaign finance reports from the Golden State disclose that the California Beer and Beverage Distributors -- a trade organization that represents over 100 beer distributors statewide -- is one of the primary backers of the lobby group Public Safety First, sponsors of the No on Prop. 19 campaign.According to the California Secretary of State's office, the beer lobby donated $10,000 to Public Safety First on September 7, 2010. The donation came just days before PSF issued an online mailing alleging that the passage of Prop. 19 -- which would legalize the private adult use and cultivation of limited amounts of cannabis, and allow local g…

Justice Stephen Breyer: Supreme Court is 'Not Political'

Jon Wiener

It's not often that Supreme Court justices face the pubic and invite questions about their decisions. Stephen Breyer, a Clinton appointee, did just that at a couple of events recently in Los Angeles.

The first questions Breyer was asked dealt with Bush v. Gore, and with the recent Citizens United ruling, the landmark decision holding that laws limiting some corporate political contributions were an unconstitutional violation of the First Amendment. Both decisions were 5–4, with Republican appointees forming the majority. The result of the first, of course, was that the Court made George Bush president; the result of the second is that corporate money has been pouring into Republican candidates this election. Yet Breyer insists that neither Bush v. Gore nor Citizens United were "political" decisions. They were, he said, legal decisions based on legal reasoning. While pointing out that he had voted against the majority on both, he worked hard to convin…

Yikes -- First State Considers Allowing Cops to Conduct Roadside Drug Tests

Michigan could become the first state in the nation to drug test drivers if a Republican lawmaker has his way, even though research shows tests generate false positives.

Michigan could become the first state in the nation to drug test drivers if a Republican lawmaker has his way. Last week, Rep. Rick Jones (R-Grand Lodge) announced he was filing a bill that would allow police officers to administer roadside drug tests if they have probable cause.Jones, a former sheriff, said the roadside tests could replace what is now an expensive and time-consuming process. Currently, officers who want to test drivers for drugs must get a search warrant to take a blood sample, which is then tested by backlogged state crime labs.Read on...

Ink Well

Should prisons have government-sanctioned tattoo shops?By Jessica Wapner

A tattooed Filipino inmate

Nothing says "I've been in prison" like an armful of tattoos. Worldwide, studies report that up to half of prisoners get tattoos while doing time. Because prison tattooing is illegal, inmates create their inking equipment with whatever they can scrounge: ink made from burned Styrofoam cups, shampoo, or anything else that can be turned into a dark liquid is injected through makeshift tattoo guns using parts from radios, PlayStations, or anything else with a rudimentary motor. And a needle can be crafted from just about anything sharp—even a staple.

Now, a newly published review of more than 100 studies has confirmed the connection between tattoos and hepatitis C virus. Nowhere is that relationship more apparent than within prison walls. Rates of HCV are 10 to 20 times higher in prisons, compared with the population at large; as many as one-third of the more than …

U.S. Money for Prisons, Not for Social Services

by Haider RizviNEW YORK - Many of those who have lost their jobs and homes in the United States due to the lingering economic recession are ending up in jail, according to a new study released by an independent think tank Thursday.There is a strong link between poverty and incarceration in the United states, according to the report, "Money Well Spent: How positive social investments will reduce incarceration rates", by the Justice Policy Institute (JPI).The report's findings on the relationship between poverty and the justice system suggests that more and more people from poor and low-income communities are being arrested and jailed, even though nationwide, crime rates have fallen.Read on...Here is the link to the Justice Policy Institute paper. Tom

Barely a Teenager and Marked for Life

Federal law requiring juvenile sex offenders to register as predators for life does more harm than good Under federal law, a 14-year-old boy who has sexual relations with a 13-year-old girl could be branded for lifeIn 1999, Anthony, a 13-year-old boy who weighed 350 pounds, told his four-year-old cousin to expose herself. Anthony, now 24, swears he did not touch her. Nonetheless, her father pressed charges and Anthony was found delinquent for assault with intent to commit sexual abuse, sentenced to sex offender treatment, and assigned a lifetime spot on Iowa’s public sex offender registry.Ten years after beginning treatment at Woodward Academy in Woodward, Iowa, Anthony, who asked that his last name not be published, finds it impossible to lead a normal life. Permanently associated with dangerous pedophiles and pathological rapists, his childhood mistake has hindered his ability to find work, housing and societal acceptance. Although he left Woodward when he was 18, Iowa’s…

'Honor' Killing: The Crimewave that Shames the World

It's one of the last great taboos: the murder of at least 20,000 women a year in the name of 'honor'. Nor is the problem confined to the Middle East: the contagion is spreading rapidly.
by Robert FiskIt is a tragedy, a horror, a crime against humanity. The details of the murders - of the women beheaded, burned to death, stoned to death, stabbed, electrocuted, strangled and buried alive for the "honor" of their families - are as barbaric as they are shameful. Many women's groups in the Middle East and South-west Asia suspect the victims are at least four times the United Nations' latest world figure of around 5,000 deaths a year. Most of the victims are young, many are teenagers, slaughtered under a vile tradition that goes back hundreds of years but which now spans half the globe.2008 Pic from Women's News Network: Police look at the bodies of Sunita Devi (bottom L), 21, and her partner Jasbir Singh, 22, after they were killed by villagers…

New Picture Has Emerged of Woman Facing Imminent Execution in Virginia

"Mastermind" of Crime Was in Reality Led Along by Actual Killers Who Received Lesser Sentences
WASHINGTON - September 7 - Unless the governor or the U.S. Supreme Court intervenes, Teresa Lewis will be put to death on September 23 in Virginia, the first woman to be executed in that state in a century. But the woman whom the sentencing judge assumed was the mastermind in the murders of her husband and adult stepson now has been shown to be a simpler person who was readily led by others and the target of a scam by an ambitious hitman. Ms. Lewis has taken full responsibility for her role in the crime, but was probably less culpable than the two men who used her and actually carried out the killings. Those men were given life sentences, while Lewis pleaded guilty and received a death sentence. "The issue in this case," said Richard Dieter, Executive Director of the Death Penalty Information Center, "is not that Teresa Lewis is a woman and should be tre…

Polarization of Supreme Court Is Reflected in Justices’ Clerks


WASHINGTON — Each year, 36 young lawyers obtain the most coveted credential in American law: a Supreme Court clerkship. Clerking for a justice is a glittering capstone on a résumé that almost always includes outstanding grades at a top law school, service on a law review and a prestigious clerkship with a federal appeals court judge.

Justice Clarence Thomas apparently has one additional requirement. Without exception, the 84 clerks he has chosen over his two decades on the court all first trained with an appeals court judge appointed by a Republican president. That unbroken ideological commitment is just the most extreme example of a recent and seldom examined form of political polarization on the Supreme Court. These days the more conservative justices are much more likely than were their predecessors to hire clerks who worked for judges appointed by Republicans. And the more liberal justices are more likely than in the past to hire from judges appointed by De…

Crimbrary gets a question from John Howard Society

I received a question from a new member about the legal implications of the new Serious Crime Regulations about what the actual law might say that would convincingly prevent the regulations being applied to any group of 3 people who engage in any activities that fall within those outlines briefly in the backgrounder the government provided. (For example, 3 people gathering for an illegal poker game; or one sex worker providing the grocery money to two adult roommates). I am not a lawyer. I am simply interested in criminal justice issues and democracy, so I'm not well-equipped to answer the legal questions. Will you be reviewing the newly changed regulations? With these concerns raised in mind, could you please write a blog entry/response on this? As you can imagine, there's little response to the changes, and no political voices can be heard on the subject (who wants to be on the side of criminals? There are only voter points to be gained via the simplistic "Tough on …

Peter McFarland Tased By Sheriff's Deputies In His Own Home (VIDEO)

Peter McFarland of Marin County, Calif. is suing the county sheriff's office for tasing him in his own home while his wife pleaded with them to stop.The deputies arrived June 29 of last year after McFarland fell outside his home while he and his wife Pearl were returning from a charity fundraiser, and he said something to the effect that if he had a gun, he'd shoot himself in the head. It was hyperbole, McFarland told the deputies, who arrived after paramedics had already helped him inside. A rare survivor of pancreatic cancer, he considers himself lucky to be alive.Read on...Never joke around when the police are around. Tom

Homicides in the District of Columbia by Police District, 2001 - 2009

Joshus Markman, John Roman

AbstractThis brief examines homicides in the District of Columbia over the period 2001 — 2009, both citywide and by police district. The analysis found that homicides declined more than 70 percent between 1991 and 2009, and 20 percent between 2008 and 2009. District-level analyses found that in all Districts but District 4, homicide rates dropped from 2006 — 2009. District 4 saw a small increase in its homicide rate. Homicides were also found to be relatively rare in District 1, 2, and 3. The full brief provides more in-depth findings on the changes in homicide rates in other Districts.Read on...The full research brief is available at this link. Tom

Violence Prevention in Schools: A Case Study of the Thurgood Marshall Academy Public Charter High School

Jocelyn Fontaine, Sara Debus-Sherrill, P. Mitchell Downey, Samantha S. Lowry

This report is based on research conducted by the Urban Institute's Justice Policy Center on the violence prevention activities taking place at the Thurgood Marshall Academy Public Charter High School during the 2008-2009 school year. Based on an assessment of the school's violence prevention approach using qualitative and quantitative data from stakeholder interviews, field observations, programmatic records, and surveys with students and faculty, this report includes: a logic model of the school's violence prevention approach; detailed information on each of the violence prevention activities within the violence prevention approach and how they compare to national best practices; student and faculty perceptions of the school climate and the violence prevention approach; and recommendations to the school administrators on how to strengthen their violence prevention approach based on the assessment…