Machine Bias: There's Software Used Across the Country to Predict Future Criminals. And It's Biased Against Blacks
"Criminologists have long tried to predict which criminals are more dangerous before deciding whether
they should be released. Race, nationality and skin color were often
used in making such predictions until about the 1970s, when it became
politically unacceptable, according to a survey of risk assessment tools by Columbia University law professor Bernard Harcourt.
In the 1980s, as a crime wave engulfed the nation, lawmakers made it
much harder for judges and parole boards to exercise discretion in
making such decisions. States and the federal government began
instituting mandatory sentences and, in some cases, abolished parole,
making it less important to evaluate individual offenders.
But as states struggle to pay for swelling prison and jail populations, forecasting criminal risk has made a comeback.
There have been few independent studies of these criminal risk assessments. In 2013, researchers Sarah Desmarais and Jay Singh examined 19 different risk methodologies
used in the United States and found that 'in most cases, validity had
only been examined in one or two studies' and that 'frequently, those
investigations were completed by the same people who developed the